JakArt@2003 – Homage Research Universitas Indonesia Vertical Timeline

VERTICAL TIME LINE / History of Art ( Indonesia)
Basic selection

Palaeolithic   -1900000 Hunting and food gathering Life of the pre historic humans
     how they live (nomads)
     Fossils, Reconstructions
     hunting activities
  – 10000 – simple stone tools
Mezolithic     Advanced hunting and food gathering Life of the caveman
    Prehistoric art
     stone art
     cave paintings -8000
     pottery for ancestor worship
    Religious life
     primus inter pares
Neolithic   -3000 agriculture First settlements
     ancestor worship system
    – old megalithic dynamics
     burnished stone tools
    – reciprosity system (barter)
    – first contact with India in Bali

(Arikamedu potsherds on sites in Sembiran, Bali)


Iron age

  -1000 craftmanship – Metal art
    – first contact with other nations
    – advanced economic system
    – young megalithic dynamics
     ancestral statues
    Ritual tools
    – dolmens, menhirs, altars)
    – Buddha Statue from Bukit Siguntang, Palembang
    – Sempaga statue, South Sulawesi
    – Palaeometalic
    Dongsong culture
    – bronze kettle drums
  +100 Proto historic Not many artifacts available
    +400   HISTORIC


Hindu -Buddha period

    Ancient Kutai kingdom


Early kingdoms, 4-7
     ancient Kutai Kingdom (the Yupa inscription ) 5   MN
  +500 Tarumanegara Kingdom  Tarumanagara Kingdom (Ciaruten inscription in Bogor)
    – many inscriptions at different sites
  +700 – statue of Wisnu from Cibuaya MN
    Batujaya site Architecture of brick temple
     Batujaya ± 7 (Rengasdengklok
  +800 Sriwijaya kingdom Sriwijaya (682-1300)
    – Telagabatu inscription MN
    – Bronze statues of the Buddhist deities)
    Ancient Mataram kingdom

Borobudur  temple

Prambanan temple


Ancient Bali



Sculptural arts ( 8-10)
    Early classical architecture  700-750
     temples at the Dieng plateau 8
     Gedong Songo  8
    – Badut temple in Malang
    Relief art( 8 – 10)
     Borobudur temple(824-842)
    Mendut temple (824-842)
    -Prambanan temple(856 -929)
    Ancient Bali  8-11
    -Goa Gajah (Bali) +8
    – Gunung Kawi ( Bali) +11
     Hindu-Buddhist statues
  +1200 Kadiri kingdom


Kadiri kingdom 12
    – stone granary, metal sound block, Bell.
    – ancient Javanese literature
  +1300 Singhasari kingdoms


Singhasari kingdoms 13
    – Kidal temple, Jago temple (Malang)
    – Jawi temple (Pasuruan)
    – Singhasari temple (Malang)
    – many statues at MN
    Samudra Pasai the first sultanate Samudra Pasai 13
    – tombstone replicas from the Samudra Pasai sultanate MN
  +1415 The great Majapahit kingdom



Mandala/ Kadewaguruan ( early educational system in the classical period) (1400-1500)
    Performing arts – view data 1400-1500
    The great majapahit 14-15
    – Panataran temple complex (blitar)
    – Trowulan Site, (Mojokerto)
    – Kakawin Nagarakertagama -poetry about the regions of the GM) (perpustakaan nasional)
    – many statues at MN
    The fall of the classical era & GM
     Sukuh temple -Karanganyar(15)
     stepped terraces at the Penanggungan mountain
    China & the Majapahit China & the Majapahit (1500)
  +1500 – artifacts in MN
Developmentof the Islamic kingdom




Colonial era I


(interaction of colonial goverment with local kingdoms)

  +1500 Kerajaan



(the period of the independent Islamic Kingdoms)


Islamization 15-16
    – early Islam ( Wali Songo)
    old Mosque architecture 15
    – Demak
    – Cirebon
    – Kudus
    Gede Ing Suro, the founding father of the early Islamic kingdom in Palembang  (1455)
    Islamic Religious figure in Palembang
    Sultanate Era in Palembang
    – the minaret of the old great mosque
    – old Mosque in Lawang Kidul at the banks of the Musi river
    – the fort of Kuto Besak
    – the Cinde Walang tombs, the tombs of the first sultan in Palembang
    – the sultanate cemetery (Kawah Tengkurep) in Boombaru
    – Banten (old mosque with minaret( lighthouse)  1600
    – Banten Palaces
    – Cemetry of the Sultans of Banten
    Portuguese in the Moluccas Portuguese in the Moluccas 15
    – padrao inscription (Sunda Pajajaran
    – the Tugu church
  +1596   Cornelis de Houtman (the first Dutch Armada)
  +1600 Demak sultanate

Ternate sultanate

Tidore sultanate

Mataram Sultanate

Islamic Kingdoms 18
    – the Goa Kingdom  in Makassar
    – ternate Sultanate & Tidore sultanate 16-17
Colonial era


  +1700 The Hongi shippingline patrolling system era 17
    – Mataram: Sultan Agung
    The division of the Mataram Sultanate (Giyanti Charter,1755):

Yogyakarta & Surakarta

    Islamic Art
  +1800 Islamic performing art : music, dance,theatre  (many data available)
    Pesantren ( Islamic education system)
    Raffles Era (1811-1816)




  +1900 The fall of the last local kingdom – the Aceh sultanate 1896

(by the dutch)

    – the Bali kingdom1908

(by the dutch)

    Batavia the Batavia era (17-1945)
    – Old dutch architecture
    – Urban planning
  +1945 Old government era

modern era

Old government movement 1945-1966
      – idiology & style
      – visual arts education
      – Persagi (visual arts)
      – Pelukis Rakyat (visual arts)
      – Lekra (political)
      – Manikebu (political)
      New government era

post modern era

New government movement 1966 -1998
      The new visual arts movement 1975
      – literature / ngo´s
      – Golput : Golongan putih

Social politics/ human rights

      Resistency artists
      Aggressive art movement
    +1998 reformation era

collaboration era

(post reformation)

modern era

Installation art
    +2000 digital art